Life cycle assessments (LCAs) and Environmental product declarations (EPDs)

The knowledge and interest of customers in detailed environmental assessments are constantly increasing. Billerud has been actively working for many years to understand and evaluate the carbon footprint of certain Billerud paper and board materials. From 2010 until now, we have commissioned several Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) in cooperation with external research institutes.

Conducted by environmental experts

We have commissioned independent research institutes, such as IVL Swedish Environmental Research and RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden), for the LCAs and EPDs of some of our products, such as liner, liquid packaging board, sack paper, etc. According to ISO 14040, the studies are subject to independent peer reviews, and our EPDs are third-party verified by an independent third party approved by the International EPD System.

Environmental product declarations

An Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) is a document that quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle, enabling comparison with other products or services that serve the same function in an objective, transparent, and standardized way. It is based on underlying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) data, calculated using a common set of modeling rules, third-party verified, and created and registered under an EPD program operator on Our EPDs are prepared according to the standards ISO 14025, 14040, and 14044, ensuring comparability of the performance of different products from an environmental perspective throughout their life cycle. The declarations cover the cradle-to-gate phase and present information on emissions that affect the climate, acidification, eutrophication, etc.


Pure White

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Billerud Flute

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Flute S

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Flute Light

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Life cycle assessments

The LCA studies compare paper packaging made of Billerud material with corresponding solutions made of other materials and consider the entire packaging life cycle: from material production to the disposal or recycling of the finished packaging.

Online retail packaging

Bags made of Billerud’s paper Xpression E-com can reduce fossil emissions by 50 percent compared to virgin plastic, and lead to a net removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. That is the result from a LCA that compares the environmental impact of different types of online retail packaging.

Comparing the environmental profile of mailer bags made from innovative Xpression E-Com® kraft paper against existing e-commerce mailing solutions, RISE, 2020

Shallow trays

Billerud’s FibreForm® tray is a paper-based solution to pack products such as cooked meats. This LCA compares the environmental profile of FibreForm food trays against existing plastic solutions. The study concludes that the FibreForm tray has the lowest climate impact.

Comparing the environmental profile of innovative FibreForm ® food trays against existing plastic packaging solutions, RISE, 2019 

Carrier bags

In this LCA, carrier bags made of our material are compared to bags made of recycled paper, recycled plastic and bioplastic. As can be seen in the graph below, a carrier bag made of Billerud’s paper is the best alternative from a climate perspective. Click the links below to read the life cycle assessments.

Comparative LCA study of various concepts for shopping bags and cement sacks, IVL, 2016

Comparative LCA study of virgin fibre based packaging products with competing plastic materials, IVL, 2015

Paper profile

Upon demand, we can also provide Paper Profiles (Product Environmental Datasheet for paper), a uniform declaration for presenting environmental product information related to pulp and paper production (scope 1). The assessment scope is gate-to-gate.

Paper Profile

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Billerud welcomes thoughts and questions about our priorities with regard to our sustainability work.


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